- Harthacanute succeeds Canute the Great in Denmark, ruling as Canute III but is unable to consolidate his holdings in England.
- Harald Harefoot claims the throne of England until his death in 1040, at which point Canute III reunites the two crowns of Denmark and England.
- Magnus I becomes king of Norway.
- William II (the future William I of England) becomes duke of Normandy.
- July 3: Robert II, Duke of Normandy (at Bythinian Nicaea while on pilgrimage)
- October 18: Sancho III of Navarre
- November 4: Jaromír, duke of Bohemia
- November 12: Canute the Great, king of England, of Denmark, of Norway, some of Sweden, and the territories near the legendary Jomsviking stronghold Jomsburg