Herein is found the list of all the Kings of England, beginning by tradition with the first of the West Saxon Kings of Wessex who claimed the title of Bretwalda. The English kingdom was not permanently unified until 927, under Athelstan.
The Line of WessexEdit
- Egbert (Ecgberht), 829 - 839, son of Ealhmund of Kent and King of Wessex from 802, defeated Mercia in 829 and became Bretwalda. Wed to Redburgha.
- Ethelwulf (Æþelwulf), 839 - 856, son of Egbert and Redburga. Wed first to Osburga, then to Judith of Flanders.
- Ethelbald (Æþelbald), 856 - 860, son of Ethelwulf and Osburga. Wed Judith of Flanders, his widowed stepmother.
- Ethelbert (Æþelberht), 860 - 865, son of Ethelwulf and Osburga, brother of Ethelbald.
- Ethelred (Æþelræd), 865 - 871, son of Ethelwulf and Osburga, brother to Ethelwulf and Ethelbert. Wed to Wulfrida.
- Alfred the Great (Ælfræd), 871 - 899, son of Ethelwulf and Osburga, brother to Ethelwulf, Ethelbert and Ethelred. Wed to Ealhswith.
- Edward the Elder (Eadweard), 899 - 924, son of Alfred the Great and Ealhswith. Wed thrice: to Ecgwynn in 893, to Aelffaed in 902, and to Edgiva of Kent in 905.
- Elfward (Ælfweard), July 18 - August 2, 924, son of Edward the Elder and Aelffaed unmarried 2 August 924. Never married.
- Athelstan the Glorious (Æþelstan), 924 - 939, son of Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn. Never married.
- Edmund the Magnificent (Eadmund), 939 - 946, son of Edward the Elder and Edgiva of Kent. Wed twice: to Elgiva, and to Æthelflæd of Damerham in 944. Murdered on May 26, 946.
- Edred (Eadred), 946 - 955, son of Edward the Elder and Edgiva of Kent. Never married.
- Edwy the Fair (Eadwig), 955 – 959, son of Edmund the Magnificent and Elgiva. Wed a different Elgiva.
- Edgar the Peaceable (Eadgar), 959 – 975, son of Edmund the Magnificent and Elgiva. Wed twice: to Ethelflaed in 960, and to Ælfthryth in 964.
- Edward the Martyr (Eadweard), 975 – 978, son of Edgar the Peaceable and Ethelflaed. Never married. Assassinated on March 18, 978.
- Ethelred the Unready (Æþelræd Unræd), 978 – 1016, son of Edgar the Peaceable and Ælfthryth. Wed thrice: to Aelflaed of Northumbria, to Aegifu in 991, and to Emma of Normandy in 1002.
- Edmund Ironside (Eadmund), April 24 - November 30, 1016, son of Ethelred the Unready and Aelflaed of Northumbria. Wed Edith of East Anglia. He was last, for a while, of the old West Saxon line to claim the throne of England.
The Danish KingsEdit
- Sveinn Forkbeard (Sveinn Tjúguskegg), 1013 – 1014, son of Harald Bluetooth and Gyrid Olafsdotti. Wed Gunhilda of Poland in 990, and Sigrid the Haughty in 1000. Conquered England, and was King of Denmark.
- Canute the Great (Knútr inn ríki ), 1016 – 1035, son of Sveinn Forkbeard. Wed twice: to Aelgifu of Northampton, and to Emma of Normandy in 1017. Was also King of Denmark and King of Norway.
- Harald Harefoot, 1035 – 1040, son of Canute the Great and Aelgifu of Northampton. Wed a different Aelgifu, but passed the throne to Harthacanute.
- Harthacanute (Hörthaknútr), 1040 – 1042 son of Canute the Great and Emma of Normandy. Was King of Denmark from 1035, and inhereited the crown of England from Harald Harefoot. Passed the Kingdom to Edward the Confessor.
The Line of Wessex RestoredEdit
- Edward the Confessor (Eadweard), 1042 - 1066, son of Ethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy. Wed Edith of Wessex. Restored the old line of the West Saxon Kings, and was later sainted.
- Harold Godwinson (Harold Godwinesson), January 6 - October 14, 1066. Son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir. Wed twice: to Edith Swan-neck and to Ealdgyth of Mercia in 1064. Defeated Harald Hardrada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, but was defeated in turn and killed at the Battle of Hastings.
- Edgar the Atheling (Eadgar Æþeling), October 15 - December 17, 1066, son of Edward the Exile and Agatha. Proclaimed but never crowned King, and submitted to William the Conqueror. Fled in 1068, and died in 1125.
The Norman KingsEdit
- William the Conqueror (William I, Guillaume le Conquérant or Guillaume le Bâtard), 1066 - 1087. Son of Robert II, Duke of Normandy and Herleva. Wed Matilda of Flanders. Conquered England and also inherited as Duke of Normandy.
- William II Rufus (Guillaume le Roux), 1087 – 1100, son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders. Never wed, and did not sccueed his father as Duke of Normandy.
- Henry I (Henri Beauclerc), 1100 - 1135, son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders. Wed twice: to Edith of Scotland in 1100, and to Adeliza of Louvain in 1121. Fought a civil war with Matilda of England and her supporters, and
- Stephen (Étienne de Blois), 1135 - 1154, son of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy. Wed Matilda of Boulogne.
- Matilda d'Anjou, called Mathilde l'Impératrice, for she had been the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor. She was the heir of Henry I, dispossessed by Stephen, and was held by some to be Queen Regnant of England from 1135 - 1154. She warred with Stephen and he conceded that her son Henry II would be his heir.
The Line of AnjouEdit
- Henry II (Henri Court-mantel, called Curtmantle or Henry Plantagenet, sometimes Henry the Lion,) 1154 - 1189. He was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda d'Anjou. Wed Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, with whom he produced eight children.
- Henry the Young King, coregent with his father 1170 - 1183. Wed Marguerite of France but died in 1183.
- Richard I the Lionheart (Richard Coeur de Lion), 1189 – 1199, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Famed as a Crusader. Wed Berengaria of Navarre in 1191 but had no issue.
- John Lackland (Jean Sans Terre), 1199 - 1216, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Wed twice: to Isabel of Gloucester in 1189, and to Isabella of Angoulême in 1200.
- Henry III, 1216 – 1272, son of John Lackland and Isabella of Angoulême. Wed Eleanor of Provence in 1236.
- Edward I Longshanks, 1272 – 1307, son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Wed thrice: to Eleanor of Castile in 1254, and to Marguerite of France in 1299.
- Edward II, 1307 - 1327, son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile. Wed Isabella of France in 1308. Murdered in 1327 after being deposed.
- Edward III, 1327 - 1377, son of Edward II and Isabella of France. Wed Philippa of Hainault in 1328.
- Richard II, 1377 - 1399, son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan of Kent. Married twice: to Anne of Bohemia in 1382 and Isabella of Valois in 1396, but had no issue.
The House of LancasterEdit
- Henry IV Bolingbroke, 1399 - 1413, son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster. Wed twice: to Mary de Bohun in 1380, and to Joanna of Navarre in 1413.
- Henry V, 1413 - 1422, son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun. Wed Catherine of Valois in 1420.
- Henry VI, 1422 - 1461, son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois. Ruled under rengency until 1437, and was deposed and imprisoned in 1461 by Edward of York. He thereafter fled to Scotland and was captured and imprisoned again until his restoration in 1470. He was overthrown again later that year, imprisoned, and was murdered in the Tower of London on May 21, 1471.